Quick Guide to Goat Terms

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P R S T U V W Y Z

 

A

  • Abomasum - The fourth or true digestive part of a ruminant's stomach that contains gastric juices and enzymes that begin the breakdown of complex materials.
  • Acidosis - A condition when the rumen becomes too acid. Usually due to over-consumption of grain.
  • ADF - Acid Detergent Fiber; an indicator of relative digestibility of forages
  • Aflatoxin - Toxin produced by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus
  • Afterbirth - The fetal membranes that attach the fetus to the membranes of the pregnant female and which are normally expelled from the female within 3 to 6 h. after parturition.
  • AI (Artificial Insemination) - The technique that involves breeding of females without the males being physically present.
  • Ante-mortem - Before death
  • Anthelmintic - A compound that kills or expels internal parasites - such as worms.
  • Antibiotic - Chemical compounds from living cells, that inhibit growth or kill microorganisms
  • Artificial Rearing - Raising a kid on milk or milk replacer.
  • Atrophy - Wasting away or decreasing in size of cells, organs or entire body; due to disuse, disease or severe malnutrition.

 

B

  • Banding - This involves the use of castration rings (bands) to remove the testicles
  • Billy Goat - male animal
  • Body Condition Score - A value from 1-5 (thin to fat) used to estimate condition of an animal
  • Bolus - A large oval shaped pill containing antibiotics
  • Bots - Tiny larvae that crawl into nasal passages
  • Breeding Season - The period of time when the doe is showing estrus.
  • Brood Doe - A doe kept for the purpose of continuing a desireable bloodline and genetics in her offspring
  • Brucellosis - Infection with bacteria of the Brucella group, frequently causing abortions in animals and remittent fever in man. Also called Undulant fever, Malta fever, or Mediterranean fever
  • Buck - Male goat
  • Buckling - Baby male goat
  • Burdizzo - Tool used to castrate bucks by severing the cord without breaking the skin of the scrotum
  • Butting - Method of fighting among goats (especially bucks) by the striking of the head and horns.

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C

  • CAE - Caprine Arthritic Encephalitis, a goat virus alot like AIDS in humans
  • Calcium to Phosphorus Ratio - Relative amounts of calcium and phosphorus in the total ration. Usually recommended to be at least 2:1
  • Chevon - Goat meat.
  • CC - Cubic Centimeter, same as ML; 3CC and 3ML are the same thing in shots
  • Chlamydia - Small organisms associated with pneumonia, abortion, diarrhea, conjunctivitis, arthritis and encephalitis.
  • Chlamydiosis - Type of infectious abortion
  • CL - Caseous Lymphadenitis, an abscess disease of goats that is highly contagious
  • Cloning - The production of genes or individuals which are genetically the same as the donor.
  • Clostridial Organisms - Anaerobic bacteria that produce spores under certain conditions.
  • Cocci - An oxycyt that destroys the lining of the small intestine causing diarrhea and death; (also known as coccidiosis)
  • Coccidiosis - An oxycyt that destroys the lining of the small intestine causing diarrhea and death; (also known as cocci)
  • Colostrum - The first milk full of antibodies for the kids, essential to their life.
  • Corpus luteum - A ductless gland developed within the ovary by the reorganization of a Graafian follicle following ovulation. Also known as an extract of this gland of the hog or cow, the chief principle of which is progesterone. plural = corpora lutea.
  • Corticosteroids - Any of a class of steroids, as aldosterone, hydrocortisone, or cortisone, occuring in nature as a product of the adrenal cortex, or synthesized. Also called corticoid.
  • Creep - An enclosure into which young (small) animals may enter but larger animals cannot. Any feeders in this area or in farrowing crates or parturition pen that are only accessible to the young are called creep feeders
  • Critical Temperature - Maximum or minimum environmental temperature tolerated by the animal before additional dietary energy is required to maintain normal body temperature.
  • Crossbred - The offspring resulting from mating a buck and doe of different breeds
  • Crossbreeding - Mating plan involving two or more breeds.
  • Cryptosporidiosis - An organism that proliferates in the small intestine
  • Culling - The process of removing animals that are below average in production, unsound or undesirable.
  • Culls - Goats which are below a required standard.
  • Custom Feeding - The practice of having livestock fed and managed for the livestock owner in another facility for a fee.
  • Cut - To castrate
  • Cysticercosis - The condition where a larval form of a tapeworm has encysted or embedded itself in the tissue of its host.

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D

  • Disbudding - The practice of removing the horns on a goat.
  • Doe - Female goat
  • Doeling - Baby female goat
  • Drenching - The oral administration of medication
  • Drylot - A penned area for holding the herd for an extended period with or without housing
  • Dry Matter - (DM) The portion of feed that is not water.
 

E

  • Elastrator - Instrument used to apply heavy rubber bands (elastrator rings/bands) to tail and scrotum for docking and castration. Some breeders also used this method for disbudding
  • Embryo Transfer - Recently fertilized eggs from donor doe are transferred to the uterus of a recipient doe, usually by surgically exposing the uterus of the recipient
  • Encephalitis - Inflammation of the brain usually with severe signs such as fever, uncoordinated, and convulsions
  • Enteritis - An inflammation of the intestinal tract.
  • Enterotoxemia - Actually misnamed "overeaters", it is a toxin in all healthy goats, that multiplies with a stressor to cause stomach cramps and death
  • Enterotoxemia Type C - Disease that affects goats in the first two weeks of life causing bloody infection of the small intestine and rapid death
  • Enterotoxemia Type C and D Toxoid - Vaccination given to young goats to build up antibodies against Enterotoxemia type C and D. It is also available combined with tetanus vaccination.
  • Enterotoxemia Type D - Disease that affects unvaccinated goats that have been placed on high energy diets.
  • Entropin - A heritable trait in which the lower eyelid is inverted, causing the eyelashes of the lower lid to brush against the eye
  • Esophageal Feeder - Tube placed down the esophagus of a goat to administer milk or other liquid.
  • Estrogen - Hormone that causes regression of the corpus luteum and stimulates estrus
  • Estrous Cycle - The time period from beginning of one heat to the beginning of the next heat. Usually about 16-17 days
  • Estrus - The period of time when the female is sexually receptive to the male, Usually 24-36 hours, also known as "heat".
  • External Parasite - Parasites that may be found on the hair, skin and in the nasal and ear passages.
 

F

  • Fecundity - Efficiency of an individual in production of young. Animals that bring forth young frequently, regularly, and, in case of those that bear more than one offspring at a birth, in large numbers, are said to be fecund
  • Fertility - The ability to produce offspring
  • Fetus - The unborn young in the later stages of development.
  • Flushing - Management practice of improving a doe’s plan of nutrition just prior to mating to improve ovulation rate
  • Foot Bath - Chemical and water mixture, that goats stand in, used for the prevention and/or treatment of foot rot and foot scald.
  • Forage - Fiber-containing feedstuffs such as silage, hay and pasture.
  • Forcing Pen - Pen used to confine animals prior to moving them into treatment chutes
  • Freshen - To come into milk

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G

  • Galactopoiesis - Stimulating milk production
  • Gambrel Restrainer - Restraining device that is a gambrel-shaped piece of plastic that is placed over the top of the animal's neck, with slots on either side to hold both front legs of the animal
  • Gastroenteritis - An inflammation of the stomach and intestines
  • Gestation - Period of pregnancy beginning at conception and ending with birth (142-152 days)
  • Grafting - Fostering a kid onto a doe that is not its natural mother
  • Group Fed - Feeding system where all animals in a group are fed at one time

 

H

  • HACCP - Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point, an internationally recognized and recommended approach to food safety that anticipates and prevents hazards associated with ingredients
  • Heat - See estrus
  • Helminthes - Parasitic worms
  • Hypocalcaemia - Low levels of calcium in the blood
  • Hypomagnesaemia - Low levels of magnesium in the blood
  • Hypothermia - Inability to keep warm often caused by cold or wet weather

 

I

  • IM - Intramuscularly, in the muscle shot
  • Immunity - Developing resistance to a specific pathogenic microorganism
  • Internal Parasites - Parasites located in the stomach, lungs and intestines of goats
  • Iodine - Disinfectant used on navels of newborn goats that helps dry up the navel, thus closing the passageway into the body of the goat. Also applied to hooves of newborns by some breeders. Veterinary iodine contains 7% iodine while common iodine for humans contains 2% iodine

 

J

  • Johnes - A wasting disease of ruminants, contagious in their fecal matter

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K

  • Keds - Bloodsucking ticks that pierce the skin causing serious damage to the pelts
  • Ketones - Compounds found in the blood of pregnant goats suffering from pregnancy toxemia
  • Known Carrier - An animal that has produced offspring with a genetic defect
  • Kid(s) - youngster, either sex
  • Kidding - Having babies

 

L

  • Lactation - The period of time when the doe is producing milk. Normally from birth of kid to weaning
  • Lactated Ringers Solution - Used for adding body fluids to a dehydrated goat (known as LRS)
  • Legumes - Family of plants bearing seeds in a pod. Alfalfa hay is an example of a legume
  • Leucocyte (leukocyte) - Usually referring to white blood cells
  • Liver Flukes - Small leaf-shaped organisms that roll up like a scroll in the bile ducts or liver tissue
  • Loading Chute - A chute used for loading animals into a truck or trailer
  • Lochia - The dark blood discharge a doe has for several weeks after kidding
  • LRS - Used for adding body fluids to a dehydrated goat (known as Lactated Ringers Solution)
  • Lungworms - Roundworms found in the respiratory tract and lung tissue

 

M

  • Mange Mites - Mites which infest and damage the skin and hair
  • Mastitis - Inflammation of the mammary gland caused by bacterial infection, resulting in reduced milk production·      Metritis - An inflammation of the uterus
  • Milk Fever - Substantial reduction in plasma calcium which interferes with nerve transmission, causing partial or almost total paralysis occurring at or just giving birth and initiation of lactation
  • Milk Replacer - Artificial milk substitute fed to young goats
  • Mohair – name given to the fleece of the Angora goat
  • Monogastric - An animal with a single compartment stomach. Goats are not monogastric

 

N

  • Nanny - A mother goat; infrequently used depending upon your location
  • Natural Immunity - Inherited resistance to disease that varies between breeds, strains within breeds and individuals
  • Nematode - Also called Roundworms, nematodes are among the most abundant animals, occurring as parasites in animals and plants or as free-living forms in soil, freshwater, marine environments, and even such unusual places as vinegar and beer malts
  • Nitrate Poisoning - Condition in which toxic levels of nitrates accumulate in plants
  • Nose Bots - Tiny larvae that crawl into nasal passages

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O

  • Omasum - The third part of the ruminant stomach located between the reticulum and the abomasum

 

P

  • Palatability - This refers to how avidly a goat will choose from among several different choices of feed
  • Parasite - An organism that lives off of a host.
  • Parous - Females that have produced young
  • Parturient Paresis - Substantial reduction in plasma calcium which interferes with nerve transmission, causing partial or almost total paralysis occurring at or just giving birth and initiation of lactation
  • Pinkeye - A highly contagious disease that affects the eyes of goats (also contagious to humans)
  • Placenta - The big membrane that the doe expels after kidding
  • Postpartum - After birth
  • Prepartum - Before birth
  • Pregnancy Toxemia - A metabolic disease of pregnant does generally caused by diet deficient in energy during late pregnancy
  • Probiotic - Living organisms used to manipulate fermentation in the rumen
  • Progeny – Offspring
  • Prolificacy (fecundity) - The number of offspring actually produced by a female
  • Protein Supplement - Feedstuff that contain a high level of protein. Fed to animals in addition to their base diet

 

R

  • Ration - A mixture of feedstuffs fed to animals over a 24 hour period
  • Rehydrate - The addition of body fluids which have been lost from fever, illness, heat, etc
  • Rennet - Extracted from the fourth stomach, the enzyme component rennin is used to coagulate milk
  • Reticulo-Rumen - Section of the ruminant gastrointestinal tract consisting of the reticulum and the rumen that is the primary site for microbial fermentation of feedstuffs
  • Reticulum - The second compartment of the ruminant stomach, also known as the second stomach. The lining has a honeycombed appearance to increase the surface are for absorption
  • Rigor Mortis - The permanent contraction of skeletal muscle associated with death
  • Roughage - Coarse, bulky feed high in fiber such as hay, straw and silage
  • Rumen - The large first compartment of a ruminant's stomach containing microbial population that is capable of breaking down forages and roughages
  • Rumen-Reticulum – Pre-gastric fermentation chamber that host a large microbial population
  • Ruminant - A group of animals that chew their cud and characteristically have a four compartment stomach
  • Rumination - The process of regurgitating food to be re-chewed

 

S

  • Scours - Diarrhea usually only associated with incorrect milk feeding
  • Shipping Fever - Respiratory disease usually accompanying transport
  • Silage - Green forage converted to a succulent feed of 30% - 40% dry matter for goats by storing without air (as in silo or air-tight bags)
  • Sire - The father
  • Soremouth - A highly contagious (also to humans), viral infection that causes scabs around mouth, nostrils, eyes and may effect udders of lactating does
  • SubQ - Subcutaneous, under the skin shot (sometimes written as SQ or sq)
  • Synchronization - A management practice used to cause the goats to cycle at the same time
  • Systemic Disease - A disease where more than one portion of the body is affected; often the whole body or one or more systems

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T

  • Total Digestible Nutrients - (TDN) Standard system for expressing the energy value of feeds

 

U

  • Urinary Calculi - Metabolic disease of male kids characterized by the formation of stones within the urinary tract. It is caused primarily by an imbalance of dietary calcium and phosphorus
  • Uterus - Portion of the female reproductive tract where conceptuses develop prior to birth (womb)

 

V

  • Vaccination - Injection, given to healthy animals, used to stimulate prolonged immunity to specific diseases.·      Vaginal Prolapse - Protrusion of the vagina in does in late pregnancy
  • Vitamins - Small organic compounds, necessary for proper metabolism, that are found in feed in minute amounts. Deficiencies result in distinct diseases or syndromes

 

W

  • Wether - Castrated male
  • White Muscle Disease - A disease caused by a deficiency of selenium, Vitamin E or both that causes degeneration of skeletal and cardiac muscles of goats
  • Withdrawal Period (or time) - The time when a drug must not be administered prior to marketing to insure that no drug residues remain in the meat or milk

 

Y

  • Yearling - A one year old goat

 

Z

  • Zoonosis - Diseases of animals that can be transmitted to humans

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